This paper is released to inform interested parties of research and to encourage discussion. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Census Bureau. All results have been reviewed to ensure that no confidential information is disclosed; release authorization numbers CBDRB-FY19-CMS-7029; CBDRB-FY19-CMS-7227; CBDRB-FY19-CMS-7328 and CBDRB-FY19-CMS-7735. We would like to thank Abhay Aneja; Spencer Banzhaf; David Card; Conrad Miller; Jessie Shapiro; Joe Shapiro; Randall Walsh and seminar participants at the Chicago Federal Reserve; the Environmental Defense Fund; Gothenberg University; LISER; Rotterdam University; Stanford University; Tufts; UC Berkeley; the University of Chicago; the University of Hawaii; and the University of Illinois for helpful comments. Ellen Lin and Matthew Tarduno provided exceptionally helpful research assistance. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.