We consider the supercooled Stefan problem, which captures the freezing of a supercooled liquid, in one space dimension. A probabilistic reformulation of the problem allows to define global solutions, even in the presence of blow-ups of the freezing rate. We provide a complete description of such solutions, by relating the temperature distribution in the liquid to the regularity of the ice growth process. The latter is shown to transition between (i) continuous differentiability, (ii) Holder continuity, and (iii) discontinuity. In particular, in the second regime we rediscover the square root behavior of the growth process pointed out by Stefan in his seminal paper [Ste89] from 1889 for the ordinary Stefan problem. In our second main theorem, we establish the uniqueness of the global solutions, a first result of this kind in the context of growth processes with singular self-excitation when blow-ups are present.